Temperature-recording stations are being closed willy-nilly, mostly in rural areas. Would the fact that rural areas usually record no warming be somehow involved?
In this recent post, we discussed the problems with global data which will be used to make critical economic decisions affecting all of the world's people in the months ahead.
The world's climate data has become increasingly sparse with a big dropoff around 1990. There was also a tenfold increase in missing months around the same time especially in the FSU [Former Soviet Union, the fifteen nations that broke away from the Soviet Republic in 1991] and Africa.
Instruments (90% in the United States which has the Cadillac data system) are poor to very poorly sited and not properly adjusted for urbanization. Instruments designed for aviation purposes with large error tolerances (1F) have been used along with instruments (HO-83 hygrometers) with known warm biases. With numerous peer review papers suggesting an exaggeration of the warming by 30%, 50% or even more.
The station dropout can be clearly seen in the two maps below with the number of station going from over 6000 to just 1079 from April 1978 to April 2008. See the big gaps in the recent data in Canada, Greenland, Africa, South America, parts of western Asia, parts of Australia.
Take this test yourself to show how bad a shape the global data base is, look for yourself following these directions. We will use the window into the NOAA GHCN data provided by NASA GISS here. Point to any location on the map. You will see a list of stations and approximate populations. Locations with less than 10,000 are assumed to be rural (even though Oke has shown that even a town of 1,000 can have an urban warming of 2.2C). You will see that the stations have a highly variable range of data. Try and find a few stations with data that extends to 2009.
To see how complete the data set is for that station, click in the bottom left of the graph. Download monthly data as text. For many, many stations, you will see the data set in a monthly tabular form had many missing data months mostly after 1990 (designated by 999.9). This required the data centers to estimate data for the grid box for that location with other stations nearby (homogenization).
In the 2008 plot above only 1079 stations were used. NASA went to locations within 250 km (155 miles) to find data for the grid boxes. For grid boxes without stations within 250 km, they are left blank, thus the large gaps. Most of the stations that dropped out were rural. More of the missing data points are having their missing months filled in with more urban data in the grid boxes.
One example of how well or badly this works is from Maine. Last summer, volunteers completed surveys of the United States Historic Climate Network (USHCN) temperature stations in Maine for the Anthony Watts surface station evaluation project. The survey determined that every one of the stations in Maine was subject to microclimate or urbanization biases. One station especially surprised the surveyors, Ripogenus Dam, a station that was officially closed in 1995. Despite being closed in 1995, USHCN data for this station is publicly available until 2006!
Part of the USHCN data is created by a computer program called "filnet" which estimates missing values. According to the NOAA, filnet works by using a weighted average of values from neighboring stations. In this example, data was created for a no longer existing station from surrounding stations, which in this case as we noted were all subject to microclimate and urban bias, no longer adjusted for.
Note the rise in temperatures after this, perhaps before the best sited truly rural station in Maine was closed. How can we trust NOAA/NASA/Hadley assessment of global changes given these and the other data integrity issues? Given that Hadley has destroyed old original data because they were running out of room in their data cabinet, can we ever hope to reconstruct the real truth? Read much more about the data issues here
SOURCE (See the original for graphics)
Climate Alarmists: Having their Cake and Eating It Too
The left-wing blogoworld was all in-a-tizzy yesterday over some (not so new) revelations about New York Times darlings Steve Levitt and Stephen Dubner's new book SuperFreakonomics and specifically its chapter on global warming (or is it global cooling?).
Climateprogress.org takes specific issue with this SuperFreakonomics statement:
In other words: it’s illogical to believe in a carbon-induced warming apocalypse and believe that such an apocalypse can be averted simply by curtailing new carbon emissions.
and offers their rejoinder:
For the record, it’s perfectly logical to believe that — indeed, I daresay most of the world’s leading climate scientists believe that if you could curtail all new carbon emissions (including from deforestation) starting now (or even starting soon), you would indeed avoid apocaplyse.
Climateprogress.org is taking a very extreme interpretation of the word "curtail." A standard conservative critique, which I believe is being made here by Levitt and Dubner's book, goes something like this:
If you believe that global warming is a catastrophic problem that requires extreme action right now, you cannot also claim that we can combat it relatively painlessly. There must be sacrifices.
The global warming alarmists like Al Gore try to have their cake and eat it too by hyping up the near-term catastrophic implications of global warming but saying that all we need to do is start gradually curtailing (not immediately cutting to zero) carbon emissions.
Certainly if you believe that new carbon emissions are the problem, then you believe that cutting them to zero you would avoid the global warming apocalypse. This is impossible. Like it or not, the world still runs on carbon and will run on carbon by necessity for the foreseen future. If you believe that we're at the carbon tipping point, gradual and (relatively) painless measures like Waxman-Markey are unacceptable. Catastrophic global warming alarmists cannot have their cake and eat it too.
Hansen Still Embarrassing NASA After 2 Decades
It’s been more than 20 years since James Hansen first warned America of impending doom. On a hot summer day in June 1988, Hansen, head of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, announced before a Senate committee that “the greenhouse effect has been detected and it is changing our climate now.”
The greenhouse effect would have looked obvious enough to anyone watching on television. The senators conducting the hearing, including Al Gore, had turned the committee room into an oven. That day it was a balmy 98 degrees, and as former Colorado Sen. Timothy Wirth later revealed, the committee members “went in the night before and opened all the windows. And so when the hearing occurred, there was not only bliss, which is television cameras and [high ratings], but it was really hot.”
Hansen has been a star ever since. On the twentieth anniversary of his testimony to Congress, and still serving in the same role at NASA, Hansen was invited back for an encore performance where he warned that time was running out. He also conducted a media tour that included calling for the CEOs of fossil fuel companies, including ExxonMobil and Peabody Energy, to be put on trial for “high crimes against humanity and nature.”
If you hear the echo of Nuremberg in those trials, it’s because Hansen doesn’t shy away from Holocaust metaphors to make his point. In 2007, Hansen testified before the Iowa Utilities Board not in his capacity as a government employee but “as a private citizen, a resident of Kintnersville, Pennsylvania, on behalf of the planet, of life on Earth, including all species.” Hansen told the board, “if we cannot stop the building of more coal-fired power plants, those coal trains will be death trains—no less gruesome than if they were boxcars headed to crematoria, loaded with uncountable irreplaceable species.”
More recently, but presumably still in his capacity as a private citizen and defender of the Earth, Hansen wrote an op-ed for the Guardian in which he described coal-fired power plants as “factories of death.” This on the heels of testifying in a British court on behalf of six Greenpeace activists on trial for causing $60,000 in criminal damage to a coal-fired power station in England.
The Greenpeace activists had offered climate change as a “lawful excuse” for their actions, and with Hansen’s helpful testimony they were acquitted of all charges. Less than six months later, Hansen—a federal employee—would call for “the largest display of civil disobedience against global warming in U.S. history” as part of a protest at the Capitol power plant in Washington.
Hansen, by his own count, has conducted more than 1,400 interviews in recent years. Yet Hansen also would insist, in a speech just days before the 2004 presidential election, that the Bush administration had “muzzled” him because of his global warming activism.
When asked about this contradiction in 2007, Hansen told Rep. Darrell Issa (R-CA), “for the sake of the taxpayers, they should be availed of my expertise. I shouldn’t be required to parrot some company line.”
But Hansen has never parroted the company line. As the head of NASA’s Weather and Climate Research Program from 1982 to 1994, John Theon was James Hansen’s supervisor. Theon says Hansen’s testimony in 1988 was “a huge embarrassment” to NASA, and he remains skeptical of Hansen’s predictions. “I don’t have much faith in the models,” Theon says, pointing to the “huge uncertainty in the role clouds play.”
Theon describes Hansen as a “nice, likeable fellow,” but worries, “he’s been overcome by his belief—almost religious—that he’s going to save the world.”
Indeed, Roy Spencer, who served as the senior scientist for climate studies at NASA’s Marshall Center, puts Hansen “at the extreme end of global warming alarmism.” Spencer doesn’t know of anyone “who thinks it’s a bigger problem than [Hansen] does.”
Spencer, a meteorologist by training and a skeptic of man-made global warming, was genuinely muzzled during the Clinton administration. “I would get the message down through the NASA chain [of command] of what I could and couldn’t say in testimony,” he says.
Spencer left NASA with little fuss for a job at the University of Alabama in 2001, but he still seems in awe of Hansen’s ability to do as he pleases. “For many years Hansen got away with going around NASA rules, and they looked the other way because it helped sell Mission to Planet Earth,” the NASA research program studying human effects on climate. Spencer figures that “at some point, someone in the Bush administration said ‘why don’t you start enforcing your rules?’”
Theon says the same kind of models that now predict runaway warming were predicting runaway cooling prior to 1975, when the popular fear was not melting ice caps but a new ice age, and “not one model predicted the cooling we’ve had since 1998.” Spencer insists “it’s all make believe—if you took one look at the assumptions that go into this, you’d laugh.” But none of that seems to matter too much.
Losing Their Religion: 2009 officially declared year the media lost their faith in man-made global warming fears
It has finally happened. We have reached the “tipping point.” 2009 can now be officially declared the year the media lost their faith in man-made global warming fears. Significant organs of the mainstream media are now officially abandoning one-sided man-made global warming fear promotion and alleged claims that the "debate is over."
The stunning media reversal has accelerated in recent weeks as top UN scientists have raised the specter of continued global cooling. See: UN Fears (More) Global Cooling Commeth! IPCC Scientist Warns UN: We may be about to enter 'one or even 2 decades during which temps cool' – Sept. 5, 2009
It appears at long last that media's faith is waning. Appeals to authority about the alleged global warming “consensus” are now being met with a healthy dose of skepticism by increasing large portions of the mainstream media. Statements like UN IPCC lead author Kevin Trenberth that the UN IPCC "has spoken" no longer have the comforting effect on many key members of the journalistic flock. [Disclaimer: This declaration does not mean the battle to improve the media's coverage of global warming is over. But it does mean that there have been significant developments in 2009 with the media's coverage of climate change. Promoters of man-made climate fears will now need a major reformation to win back the faith of key members of the media.]
A steady stream of peer-reviewed studies, a continued lack of global warming, real world data and scientists continuing to dissent, have finally moved major establishment media outlets to report that the debate not only is "not over" but that skeptics may have been correct all along. [Note: Journalists are now sensing what Atmospheric physicist James A. Peden, formerly of the Space Research and Coordination Center in Pittsburgh, warned about in 2008. “Many [scientists] are now searching for a way to back out quietly (from promoting warming fears), without having their professional careers ruined," Peden said.]
Close followers of climate science development foresaw this collapse of the science is "settled" reporting way back in 2006. Here is a breakdown of how the science of man-made global warming and the alleged "consensus" has fared since 2006.
1) 2006: Year of Vindication for Skeptics: Renowned Scientist Defects From Belief in Global Warming – Caps Year of Vindication for Skeptics - October 17, 2006
2) 2007 - GLOBAL WARMING ALARMISM REACHES A TIPPING POINT - October 26, 2007 (Editor's Note: 2007 is also known as the year 'Anthropogenic global warming bites the dust' as 'New Peer-Reviewed Scientific Studies Chill Global Warming Fears' - August 20, 2007
3) 2008: 'Consensus' On Man-Made Global Warming Collapses in 2008 – July 18, 2008
4) 2009: 'Consensus' Continues its Freefall – March 12, 2009
2009 can now be officially declared the year the media lost their faith in man-made global warming fears. [Note: The collapse of man-made climate fears has even prompted Al Gore's producer, environmental activist Laurie David, to already tout the next eco-scare. See: AGW RIP? Is It Time for Next Eco-Scare Already? Gore's producer Laure David touts plastic crisis: 'Plastic waste is in some ways more alarming for us humans than global warming' - July 31, 2009 & UK Green Party: 'There exists a more serious crisis than the 'CO2 crisis': the oxygen levels are dropping and the human activity has decreased them by 1/3 or ½']
In addition to the media, even climate and environmental activists are now questioning global warming. See: Climate Activists Shock Admission: 'Climate change campaigners should not have fixated on carbon dioxide' – Sept. 18, 2009 & See: Even activists at green festivals are now expressing doubts over man-made climate fears: 'I'm not sure climate change is real' - August 8, 2009.
The public has grown increasingly skeptical as the promoters of man-made climate fears have grown more dire. See: Climate Depot Factsheet on Public Opinion About Global Warming: Americans Growing Increasingly Skeptical - Sept. 22, 2009 & See: Climate Depot Factsheet on "climate astrology."
Houston Chronicle Reporter: 'I am confused'
Perhaps the most dramatic public announcement came in September from Houston Chronicle science reporter Eric Berger. See: Sept. 2009: Houston Chronicle Reporter Reconsiders Science is 'Settled' Claims! 'I am confused. Four years ago this all seemed like a fait accompli' - "Earth seems to have, at least temporarily, stopped warming," Berger wrote on September 6, 2009. "If we can't have confidence in short-term prognosis for climate change, how can we have full confidence in long-term?" Berger asked.
Other high profile climate reporters like Andrew Revkin of the New York Times are now writing articles about how the UN is failing to achieve scientific and political dominance. See: NYT's Moment of Clarity: UN faces challenge achieving climate treaty 'when global temps have been stable for a decade and may even drop in next few years' – Sept. 23, 2009. Also See: NYT's Moment of Clarity: 'Nobel Halo Fades Fast for UN IPCC Climate Change Panel' -- 'It could quickly lose relevance' - August 4, 2009
'What happened to global warming'
The BBC stunned the journalism community with its October 8, 2009 article by their climate correspondent Paul Hudson. The BBC headline reverberated across the globe: "What happened to global warming." The BBC article went on to explain in detail about the lack of global warming and the fact that many scientists are predicting a coming global cooling. See: Shock: BBC's Moment of Clarity: 'What happened to global warming?' -- 'Debate about what is causing it is far from over' – By BBC Climate Correspondent Paul Hudson - October 8, 2009
The scientific, cultural and political impact of the BBC's new perspective on man-made global warming was astounding. Headlines blared:
1) 'Frightening hysteria that so gripped the media...is finally subsiding'
2) BBC article is 'a bit like the Catholic church questioning the existence of god'
3) 'The BBC's amazing U-turn on climate change'
4) Rare events: BBC questions global warming and Gore takes questions
5) Australian Herald Sun: Warming emperor suddenly naked: 'This is the like the moment in the Emperor's New Clothes, in which the boy calls out: 'But he's naked' - October 14, 2009
The BBC began exhibiting this new found climate skepticism in July 2009. See: Moment of Clarity: BBC Wakes Up To Benefits Of Warming -- And To Climate Skepticism! - July 30, 3009
BBC journalist Richard Black also appeared to shift his climate views in 2009. See: BBC's Richard Black Sees The Light -- Asks 'Does climate cloud the bigger picture?'- July 5, 2009 & BBC's Richard Black is asking the right questions! 'Has climate change hijacked the wider environmental agenda?' - August 27, 2009
Media Now Engaging in Frenzy of Skeptical Coverage
Not to be left out of the fresh air of journalistic balance and the new recognition of climate reality, the UK Times, UK Mail and the Christian Science Monitor jumped out of the gates with their own new found skeptical take on man-made climate fears in recent days.
See: 1) More Media Deserts Global Warming! UK Sunday Times: 'Why everything you think you know about global warming is wrong' – October 11, 2009
2) UK Mail: 'Whatever happened to global warming? How freezing temperatures are starting to shatter climate change theory' - October 14, 2009 (Note: Article mistakenly cites U.S. NASA temperature data as global)
3) Christian Science Monitor: 'Biggest news you've never heard: Earth isn't warming' – October 10, 2009
Even the Washington Post is finally coming around to balance objectivity in their climate reporting. See: Wash. Post reporting makes progress! Article concedes sea level computer model 'predictions could be flawed or flat wrong' - June 9, 2009
Sadly, not every reporter at the Post has kept up with the latest climate developments as the paper continued to churn out shoddy reporting from Post staff writer Juliet Eilperin. See: Wash. Post's Juliet Eilperin Rejects Journalistic Balance -- Touts 'Political' UN Climate Scare Report - September 25, 2009
On a more humorous note, Washington Post's Andrew Freedman has been reduced to blaming President Obama and Climate Depot for the failure of man-made climate fears to persuade the public. See: Wash. Post Blames Obama For Failure of Global Warming Movement! President's 'mistakes may cost the planet dearly' - Sept. 1, 2009
CNN's Lou Dobbs, also moved solidly into the skeptical camp in 2009. See: CNN's Lou Dobbs Becomes More Skeptical - Reconsiders Climate Views
Joining Dobbs in having an apparent conversion to skepticism was CBS newsman Charles Osgood. See: CBS Newsman Charles Osgood A Climate Skeptic? Questions Whether Quiet Sun May 'Counteract' Global Warming - April 21, 2009
National Geographic also wrote some very good articles presenting the potential benefits of any future global warming. See: National Geographic's Moment of Clarity: 'Emerging evidence' reveals 'rising temps could benefit millions of Africans in the driest parts of the continent' - July 31, 2009
There are still many members of the mainstream media who are likely beyond hope in terms of shifting their woeful climate change reporting to reflect the new scientific realities. Among these lost souls are Bill Blakemore of ABC News and Scott Pelley of CBS News. No amount of deprogramming is likely to impact their orthodox climate beliefs. [See: ABC's Bill Blakemore's new reporting low: 'Rising temps are helping both heroin traffickers and their Taliban and al Qaeda supporters' - October 10, 2009 and see: “I don't like the word 'Balance''- Says ABC News Global Warming Reporter – October 30, 2006 - Also see: Scott Pelley of CBS News publicly compared scientists skeptical of global warming fears to Holocaust deniers: 'If I do an interview with Elie Wiesel, am I required as a journalist to find a Holocaust denier?' Pelley said in a March 23, 2006 interview with CBS News.]
The verdict is still out on the Associated Press climate reporter Seth Borenstein. Borenstein has shown the ability to do balanced global warming reporting, but more often than not, descends into lazy one-sided reporting. See: 'Long sad history of AP reporter Seth Borenstein's woeful global warming reporting' - August 21, 2009
CNN's Climate Coverage Improves
CNN's coverage of global warming radically improved in 2009, since the news network let go its climate fear promoting science reporter Miles O'Brien and his CNN producer Peter Dykstra. The same goes for The Weather Channel. The network's coverage of climate issues has improved dramatically since the woeful Heidi Cullen was let go. These are two ironclad instances where budget cutbacks and staff reductions noticeably improved climate news coverage.
Another key issue in 2009, was the intensification of threats and intimidation directed towards climate skeptics by the global warming faithful. See: 'Execute' Skeptics! Shock Call To Action: 'At what point do we jail or execute global warming deniers' -- 'Shouldn't we start punishing them now?' - June 3, 2009
More HERE (See the original for links)
Global cooling hitting British Columbia too
"The lows aren't just slipping slightly below old records but "shattering" them"
A cold snap across B.C. broke another set of records early on Thanksgiving Day, including a low mark for this day at the Vancouver International Airport. The early-morning reading of 0.9 degrees Celsius was a low for Oct. 12 since weather records began being kept decades ago.
"I've counted in excess of 80 cold-temperature records set throughout the long weekend [across the province]," said Environment Canada meteorologist and Global BC weather expert Mark Madryga on Monday. In many cases, the lows aren't just slipping slightly below old records but "shattering" them, he said.
He cites Williams Lake, where yesterday's minus 13 low broke the old 2002 record of minus 6.5. "And most of these weather stations go back 50 or 60 years or more," he notes.....
Madryga said the cold snap is attributable to a strong upper-level jet-stream flow that's been steering in arctic air for several days in a row. "It just kept pushing, pushing, pushing the arctic air southward and took over the entire province," said Madryga. "It's very early in the year to get this kind of [sustained] arctic flow," he said. "This is more typical of mid- to late November."
But the weather, he said, is due to get back to more seasonal norms in the next couple of days. "The plan is for this all to ... dramatically change by midweek," he said, as a rainy southwest flow sweeps into the province. It will mean a "dramatic increase in temperatures," rain for the B.C. coast, and a bit of snow in the Interior that will quickly shift to rain. The wet stuff and milder temperatures should arrive by Wednesday and intensify by Thursday, he said.
See here for a similar report from Austria, half a world away from Canada: "Austria’s provincial capitals are expected to see their earliest snowfalls in history today". That jetstream sure is pesky!
Australia's proposed new Warmist laws will be costly but will not reduce power station emissions
The Greens and Nationals are both opposed to the scheme and new evidence supports their cause. In the odd way that is characteristic of political party names, the National Party represents rural and regional interests
ONE of the more genial aspects of the seemingly interminable debate over the emissions trading scheme is the way the Left and the Right bump up against each other in slightly comic fashion as the circle of debate closes. So, as it stands, you have both the Nationals' Barnaby Joyce and the Greens' Bob Brown vehemently opposed to Penny Wong's Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme. For completely different reasons, of course. Brown wants it to go further and greener. And Joyce wouldn't want the scheme even if he won it in a pub raffle.
But the intensity of their opposition is just the same politically. Wong will have to persuade them both if the CPRS is ever to become law. Unless, of course, Malcolm Turnbull miraculously convinces his entire party room to vote for an amended version of Wong and Kevin Rudd's proposed emissions trading scheme. Which he won't.
That would see Barnaby and Bob standing shoulder to shoulder against Rudd's ETS at any subsequent double dissolution election. But there's a way to go yet, including this week's supplementary Senate estimates hearings. The Department of the Environment, including Climate Change, is up Monday night and Tuesday. Treasury gets its go Thursday.
With that in mind, left-leaning think tank the Australia Institute has been doing its own research into the Treasury advice underpinning the ETS. In the context of the Left-Right ETS alignment discussed above, what the institute has found will please both Joyce and Brown, albeit for different reasons.
The institute plans to publish the results and analysis of its freedom of information requests to Treasury today as a research paper. According to the institute's executive director Richard Denniss, it should make Senate estimates a little more interesting, come Tuesday and Thursday. Part of what Denniss has uncovered concerns Treasury spreadsheets that underpin work appearing in the departmental publication entitled Australia's Low Pollution Future: the Economics of Climate Change Mitigation. The bottom-line charge is that while Wong has been relentlessly sounding the alarm about the dramatic action needed now to cut carbon pollution, Treasury modelling buttressing the CPRS shows it will in fact have little or no impact on one of the key offenders -- the coal-fired electricity generation industry -- in our lifetime.
Denniss takes up the story: "What she (Wong) doesn't tell us is that her CPRS, complex and impenetrable as it is, does not actually result in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from our coal-fired power stations."
Using graphs taken from Treasury spreadsheets of the CPRS modelling, Denniss argues that when the CPRS comes in there is a slight reduction in the amount of electricity generated from black coal between 2010 and 2020 and virtually no reduction in brown coal electricity -- the dirtiest form of electricity generation -- over the same period.
After 2020, says Denniss, emissions from black coal-fired power stations are actually forecast to rise slightly before stabilising until about 2033. Brown coal emissions are also stable between 2020 and 2033. It's only after 2033 -- that is, in 24 years -- that emissions from black and brown coal both begin to fall rapidly.
Not only that. The decline in electricity generation from black coal is actually driven solely by the introduction of the government's 20per cent renewable energy arget, an entirely different policy instrument from the CPRS. It is the projected increase in the supply of renewable electricity -- unrelated to the introduction of the CPRS -- that will slightly reduce the amount of electricity generated by black coal power stations. The bigger polluting brown coal power stations will be virtually unaffected.
In light of the Treasury modelling, Denniss says: "After the 20 per cent renewable energy target is achieved in 2020 there is no further reduction in the amount of electricity generated by black and brown coal-fired power stations. "This is because the CPRS has no effect on the competitiveness of coal-fired power stations."
"The projected carbon price of around $20-$25 per tonne is significantly less than the cost difference between renewable electricity and coal-fired electricity. While the introduction of a carbon price will reduce the profits of the coal-fired power stations, it will not reduce the amount of electricity they generate."
And the reason emissions from black and brown coal-fired power stations plummet in 2033 also has nothing to do with the CPRS. According to Denniss, Treasury has simply assumed that in 2033 we will invent clean coal and that, having invented it, it will turn out to be cheap. Further, it assumes that between 2033 and 2043 we can replace or retrofit every coal-fired power station in Australia. Despite the fact that it takes five years to plan and build a normal one, Treasury seems to think we can replace them all in 10 years.
Based on his analysis of Treasury figuring, Denniss wants three questions thrown at the Treasury and Climate Change bureaucrats this week: first, is the government aware that Treasury modelling shows that emissions from black and brown coal don't fall until 2033? Second, is the government aware that they only fall after 2033 because of the assumed invention of clean coal? And finally, can the government describe the "transformation" of the coal-fired power industry that results from theCPRS?
All good questions. And all ones that Joyce and Brown would like asked. For different reasons, of course.
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